General Health

AMINO ACIDS EXPLAINED

AMINO ACIDS EXPLAINED
Amino Acids are used extensively in Hi Form formulas.
Amino acids are the molecular units that make up proteins. All proteins are various compositions of twenty specific naturally occurring amino acids.
Protein is required for the growth and development of all animals including human beings. Body proteins serve many functions; they include structural components of cells and tissues, enzyme catalysts of biochemical reactions, hormone messengers, and components of the immune system.
Proteins are hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes to peptides and amino acids which are absorbed and transported by the blood to various body tissues. Tissue proteins are continually being broken down and resynthesized, ingested amino acids being incorporated and those already present being eliminated. Certain amino acids necessary for growth and maintenance must be included in the diet, but others can be synthesized from non-protein precursors.

Amino acetic Acid: A nonessential amino acid, derived from many proteins, used as a gastric antacid and dietary supplement, and in the treatment of various myopathies and peripheral vascular insufficiencies. A solution is used as an irrigation fluid. Its hydrochloride salt is use as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of achlorhydria.

Alanine: A natural amino acid occurring in two forms, alpha-Alanine, and beta-Alanine.
1. Hypoglycemia (Prolongs the stabilization of blood glucose over long periods of time.)
2. Alanine may be used for the production of glucose in gluconeogenesis.

Arginine: An amino acid occurring in proteins; it is involved in the urea cycle, which converts ammonia to urea.
1. Induces growth hormone release from the pituitary gland.
2. Major component of seminal fluid.
3. Helpful in burn treatment, elevated ammonia levels, and cirrhosis of the liver.
4. Stimulates immune response by enhancing the production of T-Cells.
5. Protective effect of toxicity of hydrocarbons and intravenous diuretics.
(Intake should be kept low in persons with Herpes virus)

Aspartic Acid: A nonessential, natural dibasic amino acid, involved in transamination reactions, the ornithine cycle, and the formation of carnosine, anserine, purines, and pyrimidines.
1. Has a protective function over the liver.
2. Helps in detoxification of ammonia.
3. Promotes mineral uptake in the intestinal tract.

Carnitine: A betaine derivative involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria, where they are metabolized.
1. Suggested as useful in mobilization of surface fats such as cellulite.
2. Helpful in treatment of fatigue and when muscle weakness is present. Useful in the oxidation of long chain fatty acids. A major source of energy for tissues.
3. Reported as useful in myocardial ischemia (low energy metabolism by the heart).
4. Useful in clearing triglycerides from the blood.
5. Useful in metabolic abnormalities.

Citrulline: An alpha-amino acid involved in urea production; formed from ornithine and is itself converted into Arginine in the urea cycle.
1. Produces the amino acids, Arginine and Ornithine.
2. Detoxifies nitrogen containing waste products such as ammonia (a cellular toxin) and is therefore part of ammonia detoxification (urea cycle).
3. Stimulates growth hormone production.

Cysteine: A sulfur-containing amino acid produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of proteins, readily oxidized to Cystine, sometimes found in urine.
1. Assists tissues damaged by alcohol abuse, cigarette smoke and air pollution through the detoxification of Acetalaldahide.
2. Helps maintain skin flexibility and texture by slowing abnormal cross linking of collagen (connective tissue protein which holds the skin together).
3. Promotes red and white blood cell reproduction and tissue restoration in lung affecting diseases.
4. Useful in iron deficient anemia and promotion of iron absorption.
5. Helpful in prevention of peroxidized fats and free radicals.
6. Converts to Cystinine in the absence of vitamin C.
7. One of the amino acids found in tripeptide Glutathione and GTF.
8. Hair contains between 10 to 16% Cysteine.
9. Heavy metal chelator. (Should be used with caution in diabetics due to possible three dimensional structure changes in the insulin cycle)

Cystine: An essential, Sulfur-containing amino acid, produced by digestion or acid hydrolysis of proteins, sometimes found in the urine and kidneys, and readily reduced to two molecules of Cysteine.
1. Reported helpful in dermatological conditions.
2. Promotes faster recovery of tissue after surgery.
3. Part of the Insulin molecule.
4. Found high in hair (sulfur bonds).
(Use caution with those persons predisposed to stone formation in the liver or kidneys)

GABA - (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid): An amino acid that is one of the principle inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.
1. Useful in schizophrenia and epilepsy, depression, high blood pressure, high stress levels, manic behavior, and acute agitation due to increased regulation of nerve firings and enhancement of Niacinamide binding receptors.
2. May induce calmness and tranquility by inhibiting neurotransmitters, which decrease the activity in neurons.
3. May be useful in reducing an enlarged prostate due to the suppression of Prolactia released by the pituitary gland.

Glutamic Acid: Glutamate is a salt of Glutamic Acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with Glutamic Acid. Glutamic Acid is a crystalline dibasic nonessential amino acid, widely distributed in proteins, which is thought to be a neurotransmitter, inhibiting neural excitation in the central nervous system; its hydrochloride salt is used as a gastric acidifier. The monosodium salt of L-Glutamic acid (sodium glutamate) is used in treating encephalopathies associated with hepatic diseases, and to enhance the flavor of foods and tobacco.
1. Reported useful in Muscular Dystrophy.
2. Does not cross blood brain barriers.
3. It is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS; (Precursor of GABA.)

Glutamine: The monoamide of Glutamic Acid, an amino acid occurring in proteins; it is an important carrier of urinary ammonia and is broken down in the kidney by the enzyme glutaminase.
1. Is useful in treatment of Alcoholism by reducing the desire to drink.
2. May be helpful in the improvement of Autism and mental retardation in children.
3. Reported improvement in mental functions such as memory and dexterity.
4. Aids peptic ulcer healing due to antacid quality.
5. Crosses Blood brain barriers.
6. Participates in nucleonic acid synthesis
7. Converts to Glutanic acid.

Glutathione: Reduced Glutathione, a tripeptide of Glutamic Acid, Cysteine, and Glycine, which serves as a reducing agent in many biochemical reactions being converted to oxidized Glutathione (GSSG) in which the Cysteine residues of two Glutathione molecules are connected by a disulfide bridge. Reduced Glutathione is important in protecting erythrocytes (red blood cells) from oxidation and hemolysis; deficiency causes sensitivity to oxidant drugs.
1. It is a tripeptide containing amino acid that contains: Cysteine, Glycine, and Glutamate.
2. Inhibits peroxide formations, reducing free radical damage.
3. Detoxifies aromatic hydrocarbons common in air pollution, such as chlorine. Reported to have protective function against radiation therapy.
4. Transports other amino acids into the interior of the cell.

Glycine: A nonessential amino acid, occurring as a constituent of proteins and functioning as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; used as a gastric antacid and dietary supplement, and in the treatment of various myopathies.
1. Is the simplest and sweetest of the amino acids. Can be used as a sweetener in herbal beverages.
2. Reported useful in degenerative diseases such as MD (Muscular Dystrophy)
3. Detoxifies benzoic acid (a common food additive) and aromatic hydrocarbons in the liver.
4. Involved in synthesis of nucleic acids and bio-acids. May be useful in conditions characterized by abnormal nerve firing such as epilepsy, inhibition of tripeptides Glutathione and GTF.
5. Is one of the amino acids in the tripeptides Glutathione and GTF; low brain concentrations of Glycine have recently been found in ALS. (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or "Lue Gehrig’s Disease.")

Histidine: (*Is not listed as essential for adults, but is very essential for infants.)
An amino acid obtainable from many proteins by the action of sulfuric acid and water; it is ESSENTIAL for optimal growth in INFANTS. Its decarboxylation results in formation of histamine.
1. Release of histamines from body stores are required for sexual arousal.
2. Reported useful in alleviating pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis. (Should be taken with vitamin C; Should be used with caution with Manic Depressives with elevated histamines; Should be used with caution in woman with severe depression or suicidal tendencies due to Premenstrual Syndrome; Is considered a mild neurotransmitter)

Hydroxyproline: An amino acid produced in the digestion of hydrolytic decomposition of proteins, especially collagens.

Isoleucine: An essential amino acid produced by hydrolysis of fibrin and other proteins; ESSESNTIAL for optimal INFANT growth and for nitrogen equilibrium in adults.
1. Needed along with other branch chain amino acids for all rebuilding of muscle tissue.
2. Role in the release of energy during muscular work. (Metabolizes along the same pathway as fat.)

Leucine: An essential amino acid, ESSENTIAL for optimal growth in INFANTS, and for nitrogen equilibrium in adults.
1. Metabolized along the same pathways as fat.
2. Precursors of cholesterol.
3. Involved in the role of energy release during any work of the muscles.

Lysine: An essential, naturally occurring amino acid, ESSESNTIAL for optimal growth in human INFANTS, and for maintenance of nitrogen equilibrium in adults.
1. Reported to inhibit growth and replication of herpes simplex and Epstein Barr viruses (EBV).
2. Promotes bone growth in infants.
3. Stimulates secretion of gastric juices.
4. Found in abundance in muscle tissue, connective tissue and collagen.
5. Low in vegetarian diets.

Methionine: An essential, naturally occurring amino acid, which is an essential component of the diet, furnishing both methyl groups and sulfur necessary for normal metabolism.
1. Prevents deposits and cohesion of fats in the liver.
2. Gives rise to Taurine (an important inhibitory neuro modulator in the brain).
3. Involved in synthesis of Choline (must be given with Vitamin B6 (paradoxial-5-phosphate) to inhibit synthesis of homocysteine which promotes plaque deposition in the arteries)

Ornithine: An amino acid obtained from Arginine by the splitting of urea; it is an intermediate in urea biosynthesis.
1. May reduce fat and increase muscle mass by promoting fat metabolism and stimulating growth hormone production.
2. Helps in detoxification of ammonia in the urea cycle.
3. May be useful in autoimmune disease such as arthritis.

Phenylalanine: An essential, naturally occurring amino acid, ESSESNTIAL for optimal growth in INFANTS, and for nitrogen equilibrium in human adults.
1. May be useful in appetite control by stimulating CCK (Chaleceptokinin Enzyme) secretion.
2. Shown to be useful in management of certain types of depression.
3. Increases blood pressure in hypotension.
4. Gives rise to Tyrosine

Proline: A cyclic amino acid occurring in proteins; it is a major constituent of collagen.
1. Is an anti-hypotensive agent in lowering high blood pressure.
2. Reported helpful in repairing muscle and tendon damage.
3. Reported useful in promoting skin flexibility in relation to aging and sun exposure.
4. A major amino acid found in collagen (connective tissue) in the presence of Vitamin C

Serine: A naturally occurring Amino Acid, present in many proteins.

Taurine: A crystallized acid, ethylamine sulfonic acid, from the bile; found also in small quantities in lung and muscle tissue.
1. Low levels seen in newborn infants fed low Taurine diets.
2. Associated with retinal degenerations.
3. The role of Taurine as a nutrient is to protect the cell membranes by attenuating such toxic compounds as oxidants, secondary bioacids and antibiotics.
4. Helpful in balancing calcium and potassium flux in heart muscle.
5.Often times considered a neuro modulator.
6. Does not readily pass across the blood brain barrier because of its two polar and non fat-soluble nature.

Threonine: An essential, naturally occurring amino acid, essential for human metabolism.
1. Rises to three times it's normal value at pregnancy.
2. Acts as a lipotropic factor.

Tryptophan: An essential, naturally occurring amino acid, existing in proteins and essential for human metabolism.
1. Reported useful in the management of depression and schizophrenia.
2. Produces Serotonin, which induces sleep. Has a Serotonengenic effect.
3. Precursor of the vitamin Niacin.
4. Vasoconstrictor, which appears to aid in blood clotting mechanism, aids in elevating the threshold of pain.

Tyrosine: An essential, naturally occurring amino acid present in most proteins. It is a product of Phenylalanine metabolism and a precursor of thyroid hormones, catecholamines, and melanin.
1. Along with Phenylalanine, it is a useful anti depressant due to increased production of

Tacolamine: (Recommended to be taken with Vitamin B6 (paradoxial-5-phosphate).)
2. Reported to stabilize blood pressure by lowering energy in some cases and elevating it in others.
3. Involved in tissue pigmentation
4. Is important in the formation of thyroid hormone

Valine: An essential, naturally occurring amino acid, essential for human metabolism.
1. Needed for all muscle building.
2. Required in the precursors of cholesterol.